first, picoalgae dominated due to extremely fast growth
rate, which swamped the diatoms and filament algae with
sheer cell numbers!
had to repeatedly wash, the heavier diatoms free of the
invading picoalgae, and filament algae, just so that the
diatoms, the picoalgae
and the filament algae could be separated and grown in different
This was done, by repeatedly allowing
the diatoms to settle, and then
carefully, and very slowly pouring off the chlorine free
clear wash water.
After numerous careful
washings, the wash water becomes clear, as unwanted filament
algae and the picoalgae are washed away!
The heavier Green diatoms have settled to the bottom.
The filament algae
can also be removed easily by simply using a small fishnet.
Unfortunately, the picoalgae can only be removed by repeated
washing since they are far too small to filter in the net.
The filament algae
are now growing, separately,
in a small hexagonal photobioreactor.
Now that picoalgae
has been removed, the diatoms now are growing,
with ample sunlight, in a clear, clean, photobioreactor,
much more rapid cell divisions.
With plenty of light,
supplied soluble silicates, micronutrients, and piped in
CO 2 gas, the diatoms turn a lush green and enter a vegetative
growth spurt, rapidly metabolizing the silicon, and reproducing
sexually, to produce the brand new, and “highly silacious,
“ full sized adult diatoms, each capable of many more of
the asexual cell divisions needed to rapidly and geometrically
increase cell total counts.
In this photoioreactor,
the soluble silicon that diatoms need, for either asexual
cell division, or for sexual multiplication, has been deleted.
Here the fresh green, vegetative diatoms are starved for
silicon, forcing them to stop rapid cell division and instead
begin TAG synthesis, instead of producing mainly sugars,
they now produce and store oils for “hard times.” Oil-laden,
they now turn yellowish!
Note that an
algal oil slick has now appeared on top of the water, as
the oil-laden diatoms begin to leak oils. Oily foams, are
now forming in this oil-production photobioreactor.
Note the large oily
bubble that has formed at the water line at the lower right
Carbon Dioxide, is
piped into these small, simple, photobioreactors, under
pressure, so the algae can breathe well, and so that they
will maximize cell division and oil production. Air is also
pumped in, as a simple way to lower the oxygen partial pressure,
during daylight (so the algae will not suffocate in dissolved
exhaled oxygen, which is toxic waste gas to algae during
daylight photosynthesis) as well as at night. The CO 2 reaction
recipe ingredients are shown above.
of Blackstrap Molasses is added to a quart of chlorine free
water. Mix 1 packet of dry yeast with ½ cup of 115
° F chlorine free warm water and mix the yeast into
the water, before adding the yeast-water into the pressure
cooker. Add 4 heaping teaspoons of brown sugar, and stir.
Close lid, and allow pressure buildup!
Two extra ¼
inch MPT to ¼ inch tubing barb adaptors and a ¼
inch female coupling has been added to the lid of the pressure
cooker to permit injecting pressurized air into and under
the yeast-sugar-molasses solution while the cover is closed.
This “process air feed” allows the yeast to ferment the
sugar-molasses solution to make carbon dioxide for the algae
to breathe, and also some ethanol biofuel. Without this
“process air feed” the fermentation reaction which is aerobic
(not anaerobic like the ABE fermentation process) would
soon cease for lack of oxygen input!
The inner “process
air feed” pipe barb connects to a short piece of ¼
inch OD polyethylene tubing which has a “T” fitting connected
to two small blue aquarium “air diffuser stones” which are
submerged in the yeast broth when the lid is closed.
By using yeast fermentation both
air and CO 2 gas are piped into the photobioreactors when
the light is available to photosynthesize
sugars or oils.
At sunset, since
photosynthesis stops, and CO 2 generation then becomes unneeded,
and undesirable (algae still need to consume some oxygen
at night ).
At sunset, photo-eye switch turns off the “process air feed”
pump, that aerates the pressure cooker/yeast reactor, terminating
CO 2 generation until the sunrise.
©2006 Patrick Ward
22 August 2006 2006
With Best regards